The literature on social diversity and cleavages in Arab society and the Middle East as a whole suffers from several fallacies, two of which are most pertinent here. One is the tendency, particularly among Orientalists, to speak both of the mosaic nature of Arab society and of the existence of a unified mentality, or one Arab mind, without any awareness of the contradiction between these two abstractions. The other is the emphasis either on communal cleavages or on class conflicts, with the result that one becomes explanatory while the other is ignored. The interplay and coincidence of these two cleavages are rarely examined in their historical and social contexts. How can an individual define the diversity of Arab society? The diversity that characterizes Arab society needs to be analyzed within a three-dimensional framework: (a) a homogeneity-heterogeneity continuum; (b) the processes of conflict-accommodation-assimilation; and (c) social class cleavages. The continuum that covers the range from a completely homogeneous society to one of great heterogeneity encompasses a complex system of vertical loyalties and communal differentiations (ethnic, linguistic, sectarian, tribal, local, regional, and the like) that coincides as well as conflicts with social class cleavages. Arab society has historically been highly heterogeneous. Certainly, one may argue that there has recently been a resurgence of communal loyalties and mobilization, confirming the mosaic and segmentary structures of society. What cannot be granted is the static conception of these loyalties and cleavage as permanent, unchanging forms of differentiation. What is Arab society in general? The characterization of Arab society as heterogeneous, however, needs to be accompanied by an explicit clarification that not all Arab countries are similar in this respect. In fact, they differ widely in regard to their positions on the homogeneity-heterogeneity continuum. Compared to other Arab countries, Egypt and Tunisia, for instance, may be described as rather homogeneous as far as communal cleavages are concerned. These two countries tend to have fewer ethnic, religious, and tribal differences (and, hence, conflicts) than other Arab societies, and are characterized more by social complexity and social class cleavages. A second group of Arab countries, such as Lebanon and Sudan, occupy a position close to the opposite end of the continuum, each being more of a mosaic in structure and social composition. A third set, such as Syria, Algeria, Arabia, and Morocco, tend to occupy positions more in the middle of the continuum. Conventional Western literature on Arab and other Middle Eastern societies has persistently avoided any serious discussion of social class structure. Instead, it has conceived of Arab societies simply as a mosaic. At the margin of this mainstream discourse, however, there has been some occasional speculation on problems of social stratification. Whenever a discussion of this nature has taken place, it has evolved into a heated exchange. One point of view reaffirms the conclusions of the mosaic model and questions the relevance of class analysis. For instance, C. A. O. van Niewenhuijze and James Bill, in separate works, dismiss class analysis in economic terms and instead use Weberian concepts of status and power. Similarly, Iliya Harik has more recently dismissed the thesis put forward by some writers that the Lebanese civil war is actually a class struggle and expressed his â€œbelief that class distinctions in Lebanon are too obscure to sustain the class struggle argumentâ€. Bryan S. Turner, by contrast, has pointed out that anyone â€œwho wants to develop a Marxist analysis of North Africa and the Middle East must start with a critique of the mosaic theory and all its related assumptionsâ€. Such a critique, he explains, is required because mosaic analysts believe â€œthat traditional Middle Eastern societies were not class dominated and that in the modern Middle East social class is only in the process of emerging alongside other forms of social stratificationâ€. Nicholas S. Hopkins has applied ideas of class derived from the Marxist tradition to changes in the social structure of an agricultural town in Tunisia, concluding that essential changes in the mechanization of agriculture and in the improvement of communications â€œled to a shift in the organization of work away from a pattern based on mobilization of labor within the household or the extended kindred . . . and toward a pattern of labor determined by wage laborâ€. Consequently, this Tunisian agricultural town has shifted from a society in which rank was based â€œon vertical rather than on horizontal linksâ€ to one â€œbased on classâ€. Hopkins argues further that not only is there class in the objective sense, â€œthere is also class consciousness, at least in embryonic, symbolic formâ€. My own view is that the persistence of communal cleavages complicates rather than nullifies social class consciousness and struggle. This persistence of communal cleavages and vertical loyalties in some Arab countries is owing to the perpetuation of traditional systems in which communities are linked to their local zaâ€™ims (traditional leaders) through patron-client relationships. To the extent that constructive change can be introduced in these areas, such traditional systems will give way, increasingly, to other social and class relationships. Reference: Gutas, D. (1998). Greek Thought, Arab Culture : The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd-4th & 8th-10th C. ): Routledge. Rejwan, N. (1998). Arabs Face the Modern World: Religious, Cultural, and Political Responses to the West: Gainesville University Press of Florida. Szarmach, P. E. (1979). Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages: Albany State University of New York Press
How Harper Lee explores the theme of prejudice in the novel To kill
Harper Lee explores the theme of prejudice in her novel, set in a
small town called Maycomb. Maycomb County was, and still is, situated
in the state of Alabama. Alabama is a state of The United States of
America. 'To kill a mockingbird'. What does this mean and in what ways
are they shown in the novel? It is a sin to kill a mockingbird because
it does not do any harm or faults to a person, but just sing its heart
out to them people. The voice of a mockingbird is a 'sweet' voice and
they sing songs. It is like killing someone or something that is
innocent and hasn't done anything to harm. This does take place in
this novel by Harper Lee. The story is based on mixed cultures and how
the people of Maycomb county react to the situations happening in
their county and their views about it and on the whole of society.
This story was set in the times of the 1930's but was written by
Harper Lee in the 1960's.
There are different ways of showing that a person is prejudiced. In
Maycomb, people stick or stay put to their views about other people.
You can show prejudice to someone by race, class, gender, wealth, sex
and in the other smallest possible ways. These ways of prejudice are
all shown in Maycomb County. The main point is that the white coloured
people give racial comments or abuse to the black coloured people who
are part of the same community.
In the in 1930's, the whites where much more higher in all aspects.
This is because the blacks were kept as low-paid workers and were
lower classed than the white community. The blacks were treated in the
worst manner or possible way a whit man could treat a black person. In
...in the southern
countries of America.
There are signs in America that changes are taking place and
developing. People had begun to recognize that blacks should be
allowed to live equally. Hopes of changes are shown because Mr.
Underwood was a racist person but in his editorial he thought it to
being the 'senseless killing and slaughter of children'. The jury took
longer than usual to make their decision showing changes and that Mr.
Cunningham tried to influence the jury to let Tom Robinson free and
keep him and innocent man when Mr. Cunningham himself was a part of
the Lynch mob who wanted to hang Tom Robinson after he was put into
the county jail. These are the hopes that are evidently showing and
appearing in the county. Aunt Alexandra also starts to change and care
more for the children. These are the changes that are taking place in
The Education Structure Of Two Countries Education Essay
Education and training human sense of responsibility to the community and country
To do the tasks mentioned above, the education agency to help children discover their unique talents, aware of all potential and develop enthusiasm for learning throughout life. The main reason that education is the basis of all nations, root of all skilled, educational development will be synonymous with economic development and prosperity of the country. I will compare and contrast the similar and different types of education in my country Vietnam and education of the country that currently I am studying in the USA.
The education structure of 2 countries is quite similar: elementary school, secondary school, high school, university and some courses after graduate in university. Elementary school (from 5-10 years old): Six years or up in age, children in the kindergarten and usually complete elementary school level in grade five or six classes. The school year is called class. Middle school (from 11-13 years old) two or three years, depending on the school system , Also known as secondary school . At age five, children often learn a kindergarten and then in grade 1 to grade 6 in primary schools. Grade 7 to grade 9 is held in a high school separate facility, also known as secondary schools. Curriculum is focused on major studies such as math, science, literature, history and language, as well as historical and educational subjects on objects and the environment. Next is high school, we know that itÃ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s from grade 10 to grade 12. At this point, students can usually choose the subjects to choose from the different areas. Graduate students in the U.S. currency will have passed the exam in the country called the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). However, international students often just prove proficiency in English with a TOEFL score. The high school level, education in Vietnam proved more difficult, relatively large amount of knowledge along with the rules, regulations, examinations rigorous. Vietnam grade students 10 to 12 proved better about the theory of natural subjects, as well as society; but lacks of practical and physical. Also in contrast, in the U.S., students are exposed more to the fact, to participate in experiments such as physics, chemistry, biology, along with the many sports activities are included in order to help students develop more comprehensive.
I believe that differences as clear as possible to the university courses, colleges, and courses after graduation such as masters, doctorate. So this is the reason that I choose go to the US to study in university and not Vietnam. In general, the system of postsecondary schools are classified into five American type: Vocational School, Community College, Public University, Private University, Liberal Arts College. That is the point so different from education in Vietnam. System of vocational schools is few and almost not considered important, along with private universities are not high quality but very expensive fees. University type of public good quality is required exam too hard and strict, while the normal type of school just to have poor quality students. But in compare, Vietnamese students are very curious and hard, so should the students pass difficulties and learning in schools even that school is not good , they still become successful. Anyway to catch up the speed of development with the world, Vietnam has been somewhat more attention to the important residential schools gifted as music, painting, film, photography, with attention also to the quality rather than quantity of teaching .
I will say more about this issue to see clearly the difference. Usually the American education system, including 12 first year undergraduate school. Thus an international student can complete 12 years of upper secondary school before going to school in America. This is a very good opportunity for foreign students like me to be trained in the US. This most prominent of the education system is the most American presidents, prime minister and other leaders, research has advanced U.S. degrees and graduate or postgraduate study in the education system U.S. American education system is the sum of universities world-renowned academic programs which have reached its peak with the most modern in the world. American education system is a typical characteristic is the number of foreign students is very high. Almost all classes, schools, the number of international students account for more than half to the east. Environment for international students is also very rich in culture, foreign languages and people. Not where you will see the number of foreign intellectuals as large as in the U.S. The international students can attend school in the university obtained a 2-year-associate degree or obtained a four year-bachelors degree. Although most universities in four years for students accepted into the majors but not selected to the second year all students must be informed and choose their majors. The students finished second in the certificate may continue to study at the school in four years and obtained the certificate in four college graduates. Students achieve certification 4-year college graduates can continue to study for a certificate or Masters Degree Doctoral Degree. Certificate is a Masters Degree with two years of service for intensive training in a specific field. Students can get into training programs master if they have a university degree in the field. However, there are many exceptions, such as an MBA (master of business administration) students do not need to graduate with a degree in business administration. Students can continue to improve the knowledge and intensive research on a narrow sector can participate in any training program Doctoral Degree (PhD). A college student with a 4-year college graduates can not achieve sufficient depth career, so they are often studied by the higher level as a masters degree or PhD degree. For example, if a person want to economists at the level of local authorities, he or she should have a master, and if want to teach economics at a university is required by the PhD. In addition, some subjects in depth study level only high school, such as law, medicine, dental school of the masters program and doctoral. Completely opposite, in Vietnam, of course masters or doctoral not good and not very much. However, as the initial step should be acceptable. And this is also the weaknesses of education in my country, where very few masters doctorate trained in Vietnam. often they are scholarship to study and train abroad. But I hope that this will be the foundation for future development of education over Vietnam when these people have experience, qualifications, they will help the young generation, helping to develop education.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.